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Lieutenant 'Tommy' Thain's P-51 Mustang after VE-Day. Thain described the loss of his commanding officer on 19 March: 'I heard him say that he was hit and bailing out. His last words were "So long, gang."'

Lieutenant ‘Tommy’ Thain’s P-51 Mustang after VE-Day. Thain described the loss of his commanding officer on 19 March: ‘I heard him say that he was hit and bailing out. His last words were “So long, gang.”‘

70 years ago this month, the 78th Fighter Group at Duxford were only a few weeks away from being able to join in the celebrations that marked Victory in Europe Day. As the monthly records compiled by the Group show, however, this did not mean they could relax or ‘wind down’. Indeed, as Captain Bowen Hosford reported, ‘the aerial battle of March 19 was the toughest and at the same time most successful the group has ever fought.’ The 78th were supporting the withdrawal of a bomber force attacking Plauen/Ruhland, and before the day was over would have lost five pilots: two killed, three Prisoners of War. Below are accounts written by the pilots shortly after the battle. They give a powerfully immediate impression of the fierceness of the fight.

Bowen Hosford:

[The battle] lasted for an hour, with waves of German fighters joining the battle until the group, numbering 46 Mustangs, was engaging a force almost three times its size. The fighting was so confused that when the three squadrons landed at Duxford they reported they had encountered the same group of Nazis, estimated at about 50. Later they compared notes and found the total number of enemy planes involved was around 125.

First intimation of the impending action came in the form of fake attacks by three jet planes at the German border. These made shallow dives on the group, apparently hoping to force the Mustangs to drop their tanks and to draw them away from the area where other fighters were forming up for attacks on American bombers. The Mustang pilots, however, refused to bite at the bait, and after turning into the jets to force them off continued on their courses.

In the Osnabruck area at 1230 hours the 82nd Fighter Squadron engaged four  Me 109s. This was the beginning of the battle which engaged the entire group. There were roughly 45 Me 109s in four gaggles at altitudes from 14,000 feet to 7,000 feet, and in addition at the beginning of the flight there were about 25 FW 190s above a thin layer of cirrus which was at 14,000 feet. These came down and joined the battle some fifteen minutes after it started.

The enemy fighters apparently figured that here at long last was their chance to avenge the record of the past year when they have always been outnumbered whenever they met the Yanks. With a three-to-one numerical superiority, they showed plenty of aggressiveness and no tendency to run.

It is impossible to give a general picture of the action, which rapidly developed into individual dogfights. Lt. Col. Landers described it as an “elevator affair”, sweeping from 14,000 feet down to the deck and back up again. Some of our pilots who had shot down planes found themselves tangled with up to eight or ten Nazi fighters.’

Captain Winfield H. Brown of Riverside, Rhode Island, Operations Officer with the 82nd Fighter Squadron, reported:

‘The first group of Nazi planes that my flight caught had elliptical wings, like the British Spitfires, and we were afraid to shoot until we had already overshot them. On pulling up from my dive I caught a lone Me 109 trying to turn back to the field nearby so Nazi anti-aircraft gunners could protect him. I figured the gunners would have trouble hitting me without also hitting their own pilot so I kept after him. I hit the plane with one burst and it immediately winged over and crashed. Another of our pilots said the German aircraft hit a building, but I missed that because I had seen a jet-job above and to my left circling the airfield. The Nazi pilot was also using the field for protection, probably hoping to land when there was an opening due to his short fuel range.’

Alongside Lieutenant Huie Lamb, Brown tangled with a German jet, an Arado 234:

‘I hit the Arado 234 with an angle shot and the right power unit started burning. I passed on the right and another of our pilots came in firing from dead astern the jet plane. When I came back on the Nazi’s tail both nacelles were burning fiercely, and as I fired pieces broke off and flashed past my Mustang. I pulled over him and others saw the plane crash.

Below, two Me 109s were playing follow the leader, flying just off the ground and leap-frogging over the trees. My gun sight had gone out of order so when I followed I fishtailed from one to the other, aiming mostly by guess and spraying both planes. As I ran out of ammunition one of the enemy aircraft almost ran into some trees but managed to stagger up and then fall off again.  I didn’t see either of them crash but am claiming them as probably destroyed until my combat film can be judged by experts.

Without ammunition, I joined another pilot who had trapped a couple of Me 109s. I was hoping to draw anybody away who attacked him. Just as he started his attack, eight FW 190s dived on us. Three of them jumped me and we spiralled up. Since I had the best plane, I got away. The other Mustang pilot shot down one of the remaining five, probably destroyed another and damaged two.’

Huie Lamb shared the Arado victory with Brown.

Huie Lamb and 'Etta Jeanne II'

Huie Lamb and ‘Etta Jeanne II’, the aircraft he was flying on 19 March. Huie visited Duxford last year to unveil the museum’s newly-conserved Mustang, now repainted as ‘Etta Jeanne II’.


Major Harry L Downing

Major Harry L Downing

Hosford believed that the FW 190 pilots were ‘the most aggressive and probably the most experienced of the enemy fighters’, accounting for three of the 84th Fighter Squadron’s pilots that day. These included Major Harry L. Downing, 27, of Lincoln, Nebraska (left), commanding officer of the 84th. ‘I saw Maj. Downing shoot down one Me 109,’ reported Lt. Thomas V Thain Jr of Columbia, South Carolina. ‘…I then heard him say that he was hit and bailing out. His last words were, “So long gang.” I recognized this voice as his right away.’

One of the pilots who stated that he was lucky to get away unscathed was 1st Lieutenant William J. DeGain of Detroit, Michigan:

‘Above an airdrome northeast of Osnabruck was a flight of P-51s at 5,000 feet and above them at 11,000 feet were eight FW 190s flying our type formation. The enemy planes had belly tanks, which they dropped, then maneuvoured for a bounce. I was below them and was not seen, so was wide of the rest. He went into a clouds and I followed, firing when I reached 400 yards, and saw strikes.

I stopped firing to close a little more, and looked behind. My wingman was not in sight, and three FW 190’s were closing on me, firing from 600 yards. I glanced at the enemy aircraft ahead and saw he had jettisoned his canopy to bail out. I turned into the three enemy aircraft behind, and one spun out of the turn. Two more FW 190s joined the fight and while I turned with two or three the others took passes. I had difficulty turning inside them and when I’d ease up to shoot the ones behind would fire at me. I got one 90 degree shot at one enemy aircraft but saw no strikes. After about five or ten minutes one of the Nazi fighters shot out my right aileron control. They eased up on the fight then, so I ducked into a cloud and flew home.’

The 78th’s hard-won success was congratulated in a teletype message by Brigadier General Murray C Woodbury, commanding the 66th Fighter Wing, of which the Group was a part:

‘Once again you have proven to the hun that you can meet him on his terms and give him a stinging defeat. Your fighting ability and aggressiveness combined with a determination to bring the air war to a victorious conclusion will certainly bring total victory closer. Ground personnel are also to be commended for their efforts which help to make victories in the air possible.’

The two pilots who did not live to see this message were James A Bolen of Wilmington, Delaware and Ralph L Bush of Louisville, Kentucky. Sadly, they would not be the last of the ‘Duxford Eagles’ to fall before VE-Day.

For more information on the 78th Fighter Group, and the air war as fought by the USAAF from the UK, please also see our new website,

With thanks to Anne Hughes for her tireless archive research.


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A page from the Duxford Diary showing the aftermath of the 19 July 1944 crash.

This month marks the 70th anniversary of one of Duxford’s most tragic events – the crash of a visiting B-17 of the 95th Bomb Group, which killed 14 men. We’ve been back through the 78th Fighter Group’s records to add some different perspectives to this well-recorded incident.

19 July 1944 began much as any other for the 78th Fighter Group. After breakfast in the Officers’ Club and a briefing in their room on the south side of what is now Hangar 4, the pilots strapped themselves into their P-47s. By 0709, 49 were airborne, led by Major Ben I Mayo. Two hours later they were in action, strafing airfields. Several enemy aircraft were destroyed by the Group’s pilots, but not without loss: at approximately 0930, Major Norman D Munson, was killed. His wing man, 1st Lieutenant Kinsolving, later described what happened:

‘Major Munson came around again for a second pass. This time he set another twin engine aircraft on fire, but just as he did so, his plane was evidently hit by flak for his ship nosed down, hit the aerodrome at a slight angle and burst into flame. The flaming wreckage slid 100 yards off the aerodrome.’

Norman ‘Doug’ Munson, son of Warren and Sarah Munson of Plattsburgh, New York, was 24 years old.

The 78th arrived back at Duxford a few minutes after noon. As the Duxford Diary reported, ‘as usual after a big day, nearly everyone on the base was feeling pretty good.’ Around 1400, a B-17 landed. Its captain, Lieutenant Sasser, a friend of one of the 78th’s pilots, offered to take some of Duxford’s men for a ride in the aircraft – ‘Ready Freddie’. Several jumped at the chance, and by around 1430 were airborne.

What happened next caused the largest loss of life in a single incident in Duxford’s four decades as an operational airfield.

Captain John E. Lingenfelter’s 1042nd Signal Company submitted a report which described the tragedy:

‘Men from the base…climbed aboard a visiting bomber for a ride around the field. The bomber careered off the neon beacon on top of one of the hangars; lost its wing which crashed in front of the officers’ club; dropped one of its rubber auxiliary tanks through an empty Nissen hut and then crashed into the barrack of the 83rd where it burned, killing all on board and one man in the barrack. The barrack was completely demolished and all aboard the plane were burned beyond recognition.’

As well as the bomber’s crew – Sasser, Victor L Mintz, James A Heil Sr. and Francis J Bradburn – there were eight of Duxford’s men inside the B-17: Martin H Smith Jr., John B. Putnam Jr., Donald M. French, Ellsworth J Seesz, John F. Hamilton, John D. Gorman, Anthony C. Loguidice, Frank L Wojcicki, and Wilbur K. Edwards.  Ernest Taylor was in the barracks when the aircraft hit.

Identifying the dead proved to be a harrowing task, as the 1042nd report describes:

‘The accident…had caused considerable confusion in identification of the bodies whose dog-tags were melted with the heat or were lost in the crash. To eliminate any further difficulties along that line a check on dog-tags was made in the mess hall on the twenty-first by Colonel Williams and Major Floyd. Anyone unable to show his tags was ordered from the mess hall to get his dog tags.’

The deaths affected everyone on the station. This was reflected in the reports submitted by each section at the end of the month. Staff Sergeant William H Roberts wrote:

‘It is with the deepest regret that I am closing this month’s contribution on a note of sadness. The tragic accident that happened on our field… affected us very deeply, inasmuch as two of the three men lost from our squadron worked in our department. As a eulogist I am sadly lacking, however I would like at this time to express the department’s felicitations and high esteem for S/Sgt Donald French and Pfc. Wilbur K Edwards. Both men were of the highest moral character and as such accorded our respect. Their ability and willingness to work was exemplified by the proficient manner they performed their duties. They have departed in body but their ethereal presence will always remain.’

The Orderly Room’s Bill Brennan paid a moving tribute:

‘Death took one of the finest members of the squadron this month. A soldier whose quiet manner and devotion to duty will never be forgotten by any of us. Cpl Anthony C  Loguidice was an average G.I. He came from Albany, New York. He had been with the outfit ever since it was activated down at Esler Field. His duties were with the Transportation Section, where he worked diligently for a year and a half. Two days before he was killed he was promoted to the grade of Cpl.  A promotion which he sweated out for nearly a year. His death was one of those strange unexpected events that no-one but the Almighty can explain…To us it seems strange that “Tony” should die in this way because he always wanted to be a gunner so he could get a crack at the enemy. He had excellent grades and was an expert with a gun. A new regulation put out by Fighter Command stating that no one would be taken for gunnery duty if he wasn’t trained in the States prevented his being a gunner. Many things we will forget about “Tony” but never his quiet efficient manner, his hearty smile, and his always ready to lend a hand attitude.’

Sergeant Jacobs of the Transportation Section also remembered Tony Loguidice:

‘This month of July 1944 will  always live in the memories of Sgt Jacobs and the men under his supervision for it was Wednesday…of this month that Tony Loguidice, one of the original gang in this section lost his life in the tragic crash of the Flying Fortress. With the loss of Tony we also lost Johnny Gorman of the Transportation Section of the 1671st Ordnance Co., along with eight other enlisted men, the co-pilot of the B-17, Lt Putnam and one other pilot of the 84th Fighter Squadron. Loguidice will always be remembered by the Transportation Section as a man who was not only a perfect soldier but also a shining credit to his family and his home town Albany, New York.’

A page from the Duxford Diary: ‘Memorial service was held in Chapel following Sunday’

The funerals on 22 July were moving experiences for the men who attended, as Captain Lingenfelter’s company’s report recalled:

‘The usual Saturday morning inspection of the twenty-second was eliminated so that members of the field might attend a funeral mass at 0730 hours in honour of the men who died in the disaster of the nineteenth. That afternoon all men who desired to attend the funeral were relieved from duty and a convoy of ten or twelve trucks left the field for the Cambridge Military Cemetery at 1500 hours.

The members of the field who attended the funeral will long remember the scene with its…flag-covered coffins; its volleys and taps and many a man thanked God, as he left the cemetery overlooking Cambridge in the distance, for protecting him who might even then be slowly sliding from beneath the flags to rest in the soil of England.’

Duxford today, showing the site of the destroyed barrack block.

With thanks to Anne Hughes for archive research. To read more about the tragedy on 19 July, please also see this website, run by 78th Fighter Group historian Curt Shepard. It contains several pages of the original accident reports, and photographs of some of the men who lost their lives.


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1st Lieutenant Stanley G. Markusen (left) of Saint Paul, Minnesota, was the 78th Fighter Group’s Public Relations Officer, whose duties included releasing information to the newspapers and receiving VIPs. Importantly for us, he was also the Group’s Historian. He was responsible for sending each month’s reports to the 66th Fighter Wing at nearby Sawston Hall, marked for the attention of the Wing’s Historian.

On 1 July, he submitted a full report, plus enclosures, of the Group’s activities for the month of June. There were hundreds of pages of documents, some of which we’ve been looking at over the last few weeks of blogging and tweeting. One report that we didn’t manage to include was Pfc Brennan’s ‘Orderly Room History’. In it he rather memorably describes how his unit was told about special new D-Day precautions:

‘The evening of the day of the invasion the Captain called a special squadron formation at which time he briefed us on the measures to take in case this base was attacked. When alert 1 goes off we are to get fully dressed. We are to remain in the barracks until further orders from higher headquarters. Under no circumstances is anyone allowed to go out unless he wants to get his rectum shot off.’

The 78th Fighter Group played its part in the build up to and execution of D-Day. The missions carried out by the Group’s pilots helped to secure the skies over the Normandy beaches, and prevented the German army from reinforcing the defences. General Hap Arnold summed up the contribution of the USAAF on 16 June:

‘Your sustained maximum efforts leading up to and during the operation against the European Continent have permitted our surface forces to operate unhampered from enemy air opposition and have paved the way for them to move forward with greater speed. This together with the direct blows against Germany itself has shortened the remaining time for defeat of the enemy. I regret that I cannot visit every unit to commend you and your commanders personally for the energy, aggressiveness, and teamwork you and they have displayed in accomplishing your missions. The job is not over. I wish you all good fortune in keeping the German Air Force subjugated and in carrying on until the final collapse of the Axis.’

As the preceding tweets have shown, this success came at a high price. Not all of the Group’s losses were sustained in combat. In May John Hartman died in an explosion while trying to rescue a crewman from a crashed aircraft. Two days before D-Day, James Wilkinson was killed when his P-47 crashed in Wales. All of these deaths, whether caused by combat or by accident, had profound consequences for the friends and families the men left behind. ‘You were always very happy to see them come back,’ recalled Fred Haueter in an interview he recorded with us. ‘I can remember when Lieutenant Hunt didn’t come back. I guess I was almost kinda sick. Even thinking about it now, it’s kinda hard.’

This will be the final entry in this set of ‘Duxford, D-Day and the 78th Fighter Group’ blogs. They’ve hopefully provided an insight into one part of the huge undertaking that was Operation Overlord. I’ll leave the last word to Stanley Markusen, by reproducing the narrative summary that he wrote at the end of a momentous month. In it he describes the Group’s losses, including the horrific toll on 10 June:

‘Flying for the first time for a full month under the command of Colonel Frederic C. Gray, the 78th Fighter Group abandoned its customary role of escorting heavy bombers to Europe and flew mostly fighter-bomber missions.

With the advent of the invasion of northern France, the group started carrying 250, 500 and in rare instances, 100 pound bombs. A terrific loss incurred on one day when 10 men were lost in combat fairly close to the landing zone. One squadron lost its C.O., the 84th losing Major Harold E. Stump. Along with Stump, operations officer, Captain Billy Hunt, went down. Flight leader James Casey also was lost. The 83rd Fighter Squadron lost a major on his first operational mission Major Donald McLeod – a veteran of the African theatre, and a man who had spent considerable time with the RAF on Malta.

The 82nd Squadron lost their temporary C.O., Captain James Wilkinson in a routine flying crash two days before D-Day. He had gone to inspect the site where a locomotive was to be placed for an experimental strafing by himself and other pilots. Crashing into the side of a small mountain, Wilkinson was killed – an ironical fate depriving him of the chance to fly in the invasion he had so long looked forward to at this base.

Captain Ben Mayo took charge of 82nd Squadron, with Captain Holly assuming the leadership of the 84th. The 83rd Squadron also lost one of their best pilots, Lt. Bill McDermott, when he had a mid-air collision with Lieutenant Kochanek.

For the first time in months no award ceremony was held.

Colonel Gray was promoted to a full-colonelcy toward the end of the month. He had shared the destruction of a Focke-Wulf 190 on D-Day with Lt Massa. The latter went down on the disastrous 10 man loss a few days afterwards.

The only remaining member of the original 78th Fighter Group now flying is Major Eby, operations officer. All the rest of the men have been transferred, killed or are missing in action – with the exception of a few men now on detached service to the Zone of the Interior. Public relations stories for the month of June reached a new high – totalling over a thousand.

The group has suffered a lot of casualties of late – several of them in non-operational flights. It has added a good number of new pilots – with the ground officers and enlisted men remaining, with one department exception. The Medical section has had a complete turn-over, from the group surgeon to the squadron surgeons in the fighter group and the service group.

The group flew forty five combat missions in June, the highest number ever. Several days saw three separate missions.

Restrictions were lifted for travelling a distance of 25 miles – no more.’

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An image taken by the 78th Fighter Group's John Taylor, captioned 'Looking toward motor pool'

This photograph was taken from the airfield lookout post, which in 1944 was on the south east corner of the 82nd Fighter Squadron’s hangar. It shows the ‘motor pool’ and, in the foreground, other workshops and support facilities.

The proverb that begins ‘For the want of a nail…’ is often quoted to illustrate the importance of every cog, no matter how small, to the eventual success of an operation. Our latest extract from the 78th Fighter Group’s records illustrates how everyone had a part to play in the Group’s success, and in the overall success of the wider undertaking that was D-Day.  If the actual words of the proverb, a version of which is often attributed to Benjamin Franklin, weren’t at the forefront of Staff Sergeant William F. Roberts’s mind when he wrote his June 1944 report, I think he would nevertheless have appreciated its sentiment:

‘As I start this month’s Squadron History I can’t help but be impressed by the significance of the importance that June 6, 1944 will play in the History of the world. I realize of course that this contribution is concerned only with the happenings of our squadron, but I am going to take the privilege of digressing for a moment to offer a few words of praise to everyone concerned in the stupendous undertaking that took place on that memorable day.

After months of planning, down to the minutest detail, the venture was a great success and obviously will continue as such. Being connected with supply I am naturally impressed with the magnitude of the job of acquiring and accumulating the staggering amount of supplies that was the prime requisite so necessary for the landing and subsequent holding of the beachhead. In last month’s history I erroneously stated that the Group was discontinuing the use of 150 octane petrol. It seems that I was sadly misinformed, not only has the 82nd Squadron continued to use this petrol but the entire group is using it. The most difficult part of the task was the siphoning of 12,000 gallons, due to the old type tank not having installation suitable for drainage. Our petrol boys have been pretty much on the ball inasmuch as they had the additional duty of refuelling some fifty transient planes from the beachhead. It was necessary to replenish their supply to the extent of 32,000 gallons that night, a job that kept the men busy all night.

The continued influx of parts to this station has helped considerably to alleviate the constant demand of the post technical supply departments. This is due primarily to the daily contacts being made by Major Dehm and M/Sgt Hubbard with our supply depot. A look at the daily status report will show the results of this effort. Our average for planes grounded for parts for the first 20 days of this month was less than two per day. We in supply think that figure rather good considering the amount of planes we handle, and the conditions that have been prevalent for some time.

Recently new ships that have been assigned to the group have been arriving with new type Hamilton Hydromatic propeller. As to the merits of the propeller I am not in a position to say, however there has been considerable difficulty obtaining the parts necessary for their repair. To combat this situation the group has changed several of the props over to Curtiss Electric propeller. There are some half dozen parts necessary for this change and so far we have met the demand. To meet the emergency M/Sgt Hubbard has set aside a complete kit of these parts in the event of another change over.

If we could foresee the trouble and deficiencies that arise and the cycle they take ours would be a happy lot. As an example, the latter part of last month saw a requisition for a Flight Indicator type C-7. Little did we realize the numerous requests about to descend on us for this item in the coming days. After a week of trying different depots and bases, without much success, Major Dehm and M/Sgt Hubbard were about to tear their hair out. Fortunately the situation was successfully coped with and the wheel has turned. Our supply depot being cognizent of our repleted stock for this item, has since remedied this situation and we now have a supply sufficient to meet a normal demand. We are awaiting with much trepidation the next sequence of events and the item it will concern.

Congratulations are in order to M/Sgt Hubbard and Pfc Hopgood on their birthdays this month. Major Dehm and all the boys wish them the best of everything. Pfc William “Bullethead” Drechsler has left our industrious group and transferred over to the sheet metal shop. The first thing the sheet metal boys did was to change Bullet’s, ‘Nom De Plume’, it is now appropriately “Rivet Head”. His T.O.file is being handled by Cpl Howell and Pfc Lobdell.

M/Sgt Hubbard’s untiring effort to keep our A.C.C. status report below a theoretical minimum was proven once again when he first contacted another P-47 base at Martlesham Heath in regards to acquiring two main landing wheels for Colonel Grey’s plane. It was only a matter of moments for Hubbard to fly to Martlesham and return with the wheels.’

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A view from the station lookout post to the south west corner of the airfield.

Duxford, as viewed from the station lookout post.

Captain John E Lingenfelter

Captain John E Lingenfelter

Captain John E. Lingenfelter’s 1042nd Signal Company was responsible for keeping Duxford connected to the outside world. It was an important job, and an ideal position from which to study how the 78th Fighter Group fitted into the whole D-Day operation. The report submitted by the company for inclusion in the Group’s history was one of the most detailed accounts of Duxford’s D-Day we are likely to find.

It paints a very good picture of the hustle and bustle of a busy USAAF station taking part in a huge operation. It explains how communications were handled at this pressured time, and illustrates how news of the landings in Normandy filtered back to the UK.It also shows how life on base carried on relatively normally, despite the momentous events taking place. I wonder how Harris, Hanley, DeCamilla, May, Millgate, Monahan, and Ruffalo reacted to being given a lecture on ‘Sex Morality’ on 6 June, of all days?

‘Headquarter 1042nd Signal Company Service Group APO 637 U.S. Army

Duxford, Cambridgeshire, England, June 1944


The history making month of June has finally arrived and with it the opening of the Second Front – the long awaited for day which is to alter the destinies of both the armed forces of the United States and her Allies and the countries on the continent.

As the month opened preparations were being brought forward to the finishing stages and troops to take part in the invasion were now standing by waiting for the “H” hour. What preparations were being made were known only to those who were to play the major part in the landings and other air and ground units throughout England continued their routine duties with perhaps only an inkling that not too many days would pass before something “cracked”.

We were no exception, and our duties went on as usual. Passes were still on the taboo list and the field in general went to their duties with memories of dates, “Mild and Bitters”, and other forms of relaxation in near-by towns.

Our company, not being intended for a landing unit, continued its operation of the field communications and saw the opening of the anniversary of a year-and-one-half in England. Little changes took place the first few days of the month and the only one to have any bearing took place on the first day of June when Sergeant James R. Peterson arrived at two in the afternoon from Raydon for Permanent duty with the Headquarter unit. Sergeant Peterson had been held up along with many other Cadets and had been returned to our Department. Immediate preparations were made by Captain Lingenfelter to bring him back to the parent unit to fill a shortage which he was qualified for and to bring him back to his buddies First Sergeant Don and Staff Sergeant James O’Leary and Technical Sergeant Stanley M. Doll with whom he enlisted in February of 1942.

With Peterson’s arrival he was assigned to teletype duty and relieved the pressure in that department which had been working on doubled-up shifts for the last few weeks of May.

Instructions began to pour in over our teletype machine in regards to what would be required of communications during the forthcoming operations against the continent. One such teletype on the second of the month informed us that when the time arrived it might be necessary to reduce the amount of telephone traffic passed over trunk circuits. In areas where this would be necessary a procedure would be brought into force by the Theatre Commander by the issue of code words “Minimize Telephone” to Commanders concerned. This Minimize Telephone procedure which was passed on to our telephone operators through Staff Sergeant McKay, Section Head, provided a control whereby all incoming calls within the same exchange would be permitted in the normal manner. Further control specified that “outgoing calls to another switchboard would be permitted only from specifically designated extensions which were to be marked on the switchboard according to instructions issued previously”. This meant that only those officers authorized by these previous instructions to make “Clear the Line” Priority 1, or Priority 11 calls would be permitted to make any outgoing trunk calls in areas in which “Minimize Telephone” is in effect. Normal conditions in service would be restored by the Theatre Commander when the situation warranted it, the teletype stated. The British Services were being governed by a similar procedure which were to be brought into Force in the same areas controlled by their exchange.

With this information being passed on to the operators on the second of June other changes were taking place within the organization. Not only were rumours prevalent but a certain uneasiness was noticeable throughout the field and our unit was no exception. With all the rumours and wild guesses it is safe to say that not a single soldier even would guess that four days from then thousands of soldiers would be storming the beach-head of Normandy. On the afternoon of the second we were to see a change take place in our own company when our Supply Sergeant, Technical Sergeant Stanley N. Doll was sent to the 280th Station Hospital at Saffron Walden along with Private Ottis E. Williams. Doll had been previously been hospitalised seven times because of his infected tonsils and this time was being sent to have them removed. Williams was being sent for a physical check-up.

The restriction which has been placed on the field on the twenty-eighth of May was still in effect on the third of the month and all rumours were hastily forgotten around 1530 hours on the fourth when a Tannoy announcement informed all personnel that there would be a “Liberty Run Tonight”. The men who had been looked up for approximately a week began to storm all orderly rooms for passes and were soon headed for town with a little or no idea that the invasion was soon to break.

The usual duties were resumed the following morning, but at 1400 hours that afternoon we all found ourselves confined to the field once more. By this time it had become more or less a habit and not too many men gave it a second thought. They picked up their carbines, helmets, ammunition and gas-masks and struck out for their planes and shops while wondering how they could inform their girl-friends that they would be unable to keep that date.

About the same time that this restriction was placed on the field we received orders from Headquarters informing us that Privates Williams and May had been promoted to Privates First Class for the first promotion of the month. That evening the majority of men headed for the theatre and the Red Cross and it was during the movie that the “wheels began to spin”. Tannoy after Tannoy was made for all of the Officers from the Commanding Officer on down to the Medical, Ordinance, and Mess Officer, together with various crews of the squadrons.

With all the interruptions the movie finally ended and when the men filed from the theatre they beheld a sight they would never forget. All of the planes were parked into groups and all were moved from the revetments to the center and edges of the field where the crews had already begun to paint the invasion stripes across the wings and fuselages. Ordnance trucks were rushing back and forth between the bomb and ammunition dumps and the revetments with their loads of bombs and ammunitions. Activity was everywhere and our telephone operators and teletype men were getting the heaviest load of traffic in all of the time that the board had been in operation under our supervision. Additional men were sent to the radio room, switchboard, and teletype rooms to stand-by and give relief to the men who snatched a few breaks to sip coffee and snacks distributed by the Red Cross girls.

By the time the morning rolled around the news was pretty well known that the invasion was in progress and all men not on duty were huddled around radios to soak up every bit of news that came across. Finally the voice of the Supreme Allied Commander was heard issuing instructions to the French underground and to our own Allied Expeditionary Forces. The invasion was on and the pressure was off after many long months of waiting…

For the next few days our men settled down to work with a fervor long forgotten and spirits seemed higher than they had been for many months. The usual routine of duties filled the hours both during the day and night so that what little free time the men did have they were willing to roll into the ‘sack’. We suffered no losses or gains in our personnel until the eighth of the month when Private Edward May was sent to the 280th Station Hospital, making this the third hospital case this month. He was not a battle casualty or injured in any way as a result of the invasion, but was being confined because of a minor physical ailment.

We shortly received notice that our Radio Net would maintain complete radio silence which was complied with immediately. This was the only section in the company to fade into silence and while the operators and teletype section were being flooded with work the invasion rolled around to the tenth of the month with remarkable success being noted in all radio reports and news Bulletins.

As a special activity of the Special Service Section of the field all personnel throughout the base were kept informed daily by means of the INVASION NEWS BULLETIN which was posted all around the field. On the tenth this bulletin summarized the progress as follows: “Americans have taken two towns…St Mere Eglise, on the Cherbourg Road, and also another at the base of the peninsula. General Bradley in Command. More than 800 prisoners taken in one battle. Main Rail and Road Links to Cherbourg are now out.”

The results of the kills made by each of the squadrons was also published on the bulletin and on the tenth it stated that Lieutenants [Kuehner] and Baker of the 82nd had not returned from their missions. “Ground strafing of trucks and goods vans successful. At least two bomb hits on railway lines.” For the 83rd the following note was published: “8 locomotives damaged, four by Capt. Wilkes and by F.O. Oxley, McDermott and Mullins. A German Staff bus was destroyed also and at least 50 goods wagons strafed by Capt. Wilkes and Lieutenant [Allsteidt]. For the 84th it was noted that “Lieutenant Lloyd has not returned from mission Eight to ten tanks damaged and destroyed, five trucks damaged, one armoured car damaged, two flak towers damaged, railway yards and bridges bombed.”

That was the way the field stacked up for the first few days of the invasion and during all of this actual combat by the pilots our men felt that they were a vital factor in maintaining the proper communication and if possible be an aid in bringing these planes back safely to the field. Men no longer complained because they had to work an additional shift or because they weren’t getting the usual pass without sleep and were bragging with pride.

A few days prior to the opening of the invasion we had made arrangements for the use of the rifle range. We managed to obtain the range on the fifth of June and ran off our firing orders all in one day.

On the sixth of June at 1330 hours we had further duties to perform in the matter of bringing service records up-to-date and at that time Harris, and Strauss were read the Articles of War and Harris, Hanley, DeCamilla, May, Millgate, Monahan, and Ruffalo were given a lecture on Sex Morality. On the eighth of the month a film on Venereal Disease was shown at the Post Theatre at 1400 hours which was attended by all members of the organization. Those who were unable to attend at that time were scheduled for the following two days.

Two days later a General Order on “Prescribed Uniform” was issued and a Memorandum was posted prohibiting the wearing of black ties by any of our personnel in accordance with existing War Department Regulations and Theatre Directives.

Five days…passed since “D” Day and the field as a whole…settled down to a normal routine, but whether we know it or not we were doing a job which was a definite asset to the success of the invasion so far. This was borne out by a teletype on the eleventh which stated…

“It has been my recent privilege to transmit to you certain messages of congratulation from the Eighth Command. These messages are evidence of a real appreciation of your magnificent contribution in immediate support of the ground assault. It is possible at this time to state a few facts concerning this contribution which are considered to be of encouraging interest to all of you. In the five days following the initial assault the strength of the allied landings has been approximately as planned. Steadily growing forces are in contact with the enemy. The German has failed to oppose this operation with the strength expected and has failed to launch counterattacks of the violence planned for our ground commanders. The successful establishment and reinforcement of the beachhead and the comparatively low casualties suffered are considered due in large measure to the employment of bombardment required bombing through the overcase with a degree of accuracy normally associated with only highly successful visual operations, photographic reconnaissance reveals that this accuracy was obtained and that the purpose of the attack was achieved. It is now known that a German division was engaged in defensive manoeuvres in one of the assault areas. This fortuitous circumstance for the enemy retarded our ground success in this area but was largely mullified by the effectiveness of the air attack. The failure of the German to oppose the ground operation in anticipated strength, and his ability to make more than piecemeal counter attacks, is considered due to air interdiction of his lines of communication and to the incessant blasting of his dispersed elements by fighter forces of the Vlll Fighter Command. The Eighth Air Force can be proud of its major part in this air action.” Signed Doolittle.

That news looked and sounded good to all of us so with renewed energy we continue our work. On Tuesday, the thirteenth, another problem was made and Private Harold Sanks, Acting First Sergeant of our Detachment at Fowlmere, was promoted to Corporal. The following day our Supply Sergeant, Doll, returned from the hospital to resume his duties in that department.

The fifteenth of the month had slipped behind and with it the anniversary of our eighteenth month in England…

The remainder of the month saw little or no change in our duties although we did have a few shuffles in personnel which dropped to normal with the closing of the invasion month. One of these changes later in the month occurred on the eighteenth when Sergeant Peterson was sent to Thriplow with a slight touch of Neuralgia. On the twentieth of the month our Teletype Maintenance man was sent to Station 520 for a seven day course in Bomb Reconnaissance, and on the twenty-first Peterson was sent from sick quarters to duty at 0900 hours. Sergeant Crott returned to duty on the twenty-eighth of the month. It was also around this time of the month that we were sent another radio operator from Ajax to fill a shortfall in the Detachment “A” at Raydon. This was Private Saul Kaplan.

For the remainder of the month the teletypes continued to pour in over our machines and on the nineteenth the following message from Doolittle and Kepner was received:

“I pass on to you, adding my own appreciation to Admiral Kirk’s and General [Spaatz]’s, the following extract from a message from him: ‘The Air Cover has been so perfect in daylight that all we do is wonder which type is now going overhead – Spit, P-47, etc. A Great tribute. I desire that you notify all personnel involved.’”


The following last message of the month received by the Supreme Commander from His Majesty King George Vl was passed on in the following words:

“Today I have visited the beaches of Normandy which will be forever famous. All that I saw on my journey and on soil of France has moved me deeply. I have come home feeling an intense admiration for all those who planned and organized this vast project and the gallant and successful execution of it all its varied phases by everyone of those engaged in this great battle.”’


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IWM Clow Collection AE2200

Each month the 78th Fighter Group’s historian painstakingly assembled reports from the different sections at Duxford. As well as the flying Group, the service units and support staff had to submit information about their activities that month. Even though in May 1944 the Group was preparing for the largest combined operation ever mounted – D-Day – life on base continued as before. And so did the reports. From May 1944’s history we’ve taken the below detailed account of the station’s ‘Athletic Activities’, compiled by 1st Lieutenant Willard L Owen, Air Corps Athletics Officer. I’m not a follower of American sports, so if you’re like me you might find some of the early detail a little confusing, but do persevere. Some of the descriptions and team names are wonderfully evocative. The ‘Stumblebums’ are a particular favourite:

‘BASEBALL: A ten team post baseball league got under way at this station the first of the month and eleven games have been played, some had to be cancelled due to inclimate weather, and the training schedule. In games played the North Islanders lost to Stumblebums 4 to 1 and beat the Bears 14 to 5. The Vikings beat the Dry Runs 4 to 1. The Air Screws beat the Foreigners 6 to 5. The Vagabonds beat the Bears 6 to 3. The Vagabonds beat the Foreigners 1 to 0 on Forfeit. The Pirates beat the Vikings 10 to 7. The Dry Runs beat the Vagabonds 7 to 6. The Scalders beat the Stumble Bums 13 to 4. Those eleven games constitute all games played in the Post League. The Post Team has hit their winning stride and in the games played to date have scored 75 runs to 20 for the opposition. In the first game we took the Bottisham team 16-0, in the second we took the 66th Wing team into camp 12 to 1. The winning continued against Debden by score 8 to 3. The next game came out [disastrous] for our side although the boys played head up ball and after the second inning the USSTAF MPs did not score but did not need to after errors in the first two innings let in 3 runs, the score was 3 to 2 against us although we out hit them 6 to5 but they still pay off on runs and not hits. The next game we went back to our winning stride and took the A.S.C. Blockbusters into camp 13 to 5, at the end of the second inning the score was 11 to 0 in our favour when a complete new team was substituted, every man out for the post team was given a chance to play. The final game was a road trip played at 280 Station Hospital, this time our boys had to overcome a 5 to 3 decision. Our star pitcher and the best in the ETO Duke Duca pitched swell ball in every game and in the last he turned hitting pitcher and the third inning he got two hits and a single and a home run. The baseball field is now in top shape after constant work and the back stop blown over by high winds has been replaced and we believe this field as good as any.

TENNIS: The Tennis courts have been in constant use all day and until late in the evening.

Our Golfers had some good matches at Cambridge and Saffron Walden as long as our golf balls lasted, more are now on the way from the states.

BOXING AND WRESTLING: there are around 15 boxers, wrestlers and weight lifters working our daily in the Gymnasium keeping in shape. Sgt Primitive Molina and our 1943 ETO Bantamweight champion on 24 May fought Cpl Taylor and gained the finals of the AAF Tournament held on the Kingston Football Ground. The 25 he fought the 8th Air Force champion whom he had beaten and lost to previously this year and won easily and was declared Army Air Force Bantamweight Champion of 1944. Sgt Harold Croy defeated Sgt Krusack in the semi-finals of the ETO Heavy Weight Wrestling tournament at Reading and will meet Sgt Gacek for the championship of the ETO.

VOLLEY BALL: The Squadrons have been having inter squadron volley ball and horse shoe pitching.

TRACK: The winners in the Army qualifying for the U.S. Team to meet the track team from Cambridge University and RAF Team every man we sent to the meet qualified, Major Jones came out second in the 220, Capt (M?)elley won the 220 and High Jump Lt Baum won the shot put. Lt Elson won Low Hurdles and was second in the 100 dash.

TABLE-TENNIS: The table tennis tables at the day rooms, officers club Aero Club and Gymnasium are used almost constantly.’


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Duxford’s ‘Theatre Hangar’, named ‘Ye Old Barn’ by the men of the 78th Fighter Group.

The men of the 78th Fighter Group relaxed on and off base in the usual fashion in the weeks leading up to D-Day, although security tighthened around the airfield as D-Day drew closer. As 1st Lieutenant Clarence L. Shaddock, Air Corps Special Service Officer, reported in May 1944, a full programme of films, shows and other activities helped them wind down:

Special Service Activities for May

Moving pictures…47…Attendance…15,556. Each showing includes a full Feature, Shorts, News and at times, the “March Of Time”.

Orchestra Activities…Thunderbolt Orchestra played for an Officer’s Club dance, B-24 Bomber Station, Saturday, May 6th, Sgts Club this Station, Saturday, May 13th, Red Cross Aero Club Dance Saturday, 20th May for all enlisted personnel of this Station, Sunday, May 28th for Red Cross Officer’s Dance, Cambridge, Monday May 29th for Dinner and farewell Party for Colonel Stone at Officer’s Club this Station.

U.S.O. Shows…Friday, May 5th the U.S.O. Show, “ON WITH THE SHOW” played to audiences of 1000 at 18.30 and again at 2030 hours. Friday, May 19th “OFFLIMITS” played also to audiences of 1000, same hours. Both shows were held in the Post Theatre.

Memorial Day Service….This Office assisted the Chaplain in the above Service by combining a record player with the public address system to play martial music and then the Star Spangled Banner. The P.A. system was used for the talks, also. Money was furnished from the A. and R. Fund to buy the appropriate wreath in memory of deceased personnel of this Station. The brass section of the orchestra furnished a brass quartet to play Taps at the conclusion of the Ceremony.

Education…Courses in Military Correspondence, Bookkeeping and Accounting, Typing, and Shorthand were held in off-duty hours. Numerous applications were sent in to the U.S. Armed Forces Institute for various courses.

Orientation…Lt. Shaddock, Special Service Officer, attended Orientation Officer’s School in London. The orientation Program was set up on this Station with each organization holding weekly discussions, using Army Talks as material.

Stars & Stripes and Yanks…24,700 Stars and Stripes and 2,800 Yank magazines were sold during the month by Special Service on this Station.

Brainstrust…A Brainstrust Forum was held on Thursday, May 11th in the Snack Bar of the Aero Club. Admiral Sir Herbert Richmond, master of Downing College, was discussion leader. Mr Kipson Clark, Doctor Thoulness, and Doctor Callow, all very prominent College Professors of Cambridge, were members of the Trust. This was attended by 200 men of the Station and was a very interesting event.

Hobby Shops…The new Photo Hobby Shop was opened with a Camera Club of about 60 members participating. Special Service is furnishing the necessary materials and equipment the men of the station to print their own film which is censored by the Station S-2. The Carpentry Hobby Shop was used by 350 men during the month. Footlockers and other useful articles were made by the men in their spare time.

Leave and pass reservations…This Office secured Red Cross and hotel reservations, travel information, etc. for personnel of this Station.


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A page from the 'Duxford Diary' showing 'Anglo-American Relations'.

A page from the ‘Duxford Diary’ showing ‘Anglo-American Relations’…

While the 78th Fighter Group planned their part in the liberation of Europe, many of the men were making their own plans for the future. Duxford’s Station Chaplain, Buford B Fordham, in his report for May 1944 explains how marriages were planned between the Americans and local women (‘Officers as well as Enlisted men are falling victims of Dan Cupid’). He also discusses the spiritual side of life ‘on base’, and muses that the bond forged between the Americans and British is ‘one good aspect of the war, which will lead to better understanding between our two peoples.’

‘As Station Chaplain I have seen “history in the making” as service men and British women have come to my office for marriage consultations. Being on the Board which makes investigations and recommendations, I see them all. In the month of May, which was typical, I had 17 such interviews, involving 38 people. A total of 9 marriages were actually consummated. In addition to myself there is the Squadron Commander and the Squadron Medical Officer. It is our function to make recommendations to the Station Commander who has been delegated the responsibility of approving or disapproving marriages involving American military personnel. For the most part our service men are marrying women who will be a credit to them wherever they go, and these marriages will undoubtedly contribute much toward favourable Anglo-American relations in the years ahead. Officers as well as Enlisted men are falling victims of Dan Cupid, and many of these couples- both officers and Enlisted Men have not only wives, but families. The sociological significance of these Anglo-American marriages is certain to be far-reaching. The contacts which we of the Investigating Board make with the parents of the girls involved, are often most interesting; and in a very few cases, rather pathetic.

Quite frequently we American Chaplains are asked to preach at nearby English churches. This month I conducted the evening worship service at the Congregational Chapel in Great Chesterford. There were 50 people present.

A number of men from this Station have been attending various civilian churches on Sunday evenings, as a result of what we call our “Church Run”. Churches visited include: St. Mary’s the Lesser in Cambridge, Congregational Church in Bassingbourn, Wesleyan Chapel in Cambridge, and a Presbyterian Church as well known as the famous King’s College Chapel, also in Cambridge. These experiences have religious, social and cultural value, and are greatly enjoyed by those who have been the “Church Runs”.

For the second time the St. Andrew’s St. Baptist Church in Cambridge has given us the use of its baptistery. This last month a S/Sgt. Of Headquarters, 79th Service Group, was baptized in a private service.

On May 30th a Memorial Day service was conducted on the Parade Ground at this Station.

A pleasant and profitable contact was made when some of us visited the Harvey-Goodwin Orphanage in Cambridge, leaving these children five boxes of candies, gum, etc., which the Officers of this Station contributed out of their personal rations. Earlier Enlisted Men made a similar contribution which was taken to British soldiers who were confined in a British hospital in New Market, England. (The White Lodge Emergency Hospital).

I had the opportunity of addressing a Baptist Minister’s Conference in the St. Andrew’s Street Baptist Church in Cambridge. This was an annual conference, and my subject was “The American Baptist Scene and World Baptist Future.” This was the third such occasion I have had of this nature in Cambridge.

I was asked to address a Church Women’s Rally in the Congregational Church in Duxford, England. There were representations from some six different churches present, and the attendance was approximately 100.

Further contacts were made with English civilians when I had some English mothers attend our Mother’s Day service held here on the Station; and as I later attended a Tea held in their honor, in the Aero Club at this Base.

With more than a year already spent in England I can say that we Chaplains have almost unlimited opportunities to come to know the country and her citizens better than would be possible under almost any other circumstances. We trust this will be one good aspect of the war, which will lead to better understanding between our two peoples.’

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